Researchers studying the brain scans of volunteers who pondered

Question

Researchers studying the brain scans of volunteers who pondered ethical dilemmas have found that the basis for making tough moral judgments is emotion, not logic or analytical reasoning.

Option A
Option B
Option C
Option D
Option E

(This question is from Official Guide. Therefore, because of copyrights, the complete question cannot be copied here. The question can be accessed at GMAT Club)

Solution

Sentence Analysis

The structure of the sentence is:

  • Researchers (Main subject)
    • studying the brain scans of volunteers (verb-ing modifier modifying ‘researchers’. Researchers studied the brain scans of the volunteers)
      • who pondered ethical dilemmas (relative clause modifying ‘volunteers’. What kind of volunteers? The volunteers who pondered ethical dilemmas.)
    • have found (Main verb)
      • that the basis for making tough moral judgments is emotion, not logic or analytical reasoning. (What did they find? This part answers this question.)

Everything’s fine with the original sentence.

Option Analysis

(A) Correct.

(B) Incorrect. There is no main verb in the sentence. “found” is now part of the “who” relative clause. Also, the OG explanation says that “basis to make” is unidiomatic use, and this use is sufficient to reject this option.

(C) Incorrect. There is no verb for the subject “Researchers” before “and”. The structure of the sentence is “Subject and Verb”!

(D) Incorrect. This option distorts the meaning of the original sentence and produces an illogical meaning. With “while pondering ethical dilemmas”, this option means that researchers studied the brain scans while the researchers pondered ethical dilemmas! Neither intended nor logical! Also, the OG explanation says that “basis to make” is unidiomatic use, and this use is sufficient to reject this option.

(E) Incorrect. This option makes the same error as option D.

About Chiranjeev Singh

An Alumnus of IIM Ahmedabad and with scores of 780 (2017) and 770 (2013) on GMAT and 99.98%ile on CAT, Chiranjeev is one of the most qualified GMAT tutors in India. Chiranjeev has earlier served as Director of Curriculum at e-GMAT. Chiranjeev has been helping students ace GMAT since 2012. He follows a concept-based methodology to teaching GMAT and is very committed to student success. You may contact him for any private GMAT tutoring needs at CJ@GMATwithCJ.com. He conducts online sessions for students across the world.

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