Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, hummingbirds’ range extends from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego, from sea-level rain forests to the edges of Andean snowfields and ice fields at altitudes of 15,000 feet.
(This question is from Official Guide. Therefore, because of copyrights, the complete question cannot be copied here. The question can be accessed at GMAT Club)
As we read the sentence, we see that something is found only in the Western Hemisphere and that this thing survives through extremes of climate. As we reach the comma after this couple of modifiers, we expect the thing which is modified. However, we come across “hummingbird’s range”. Clearly, it doesn’t make sense to say that the range is found in a region and that the range survives through extremes of climate. It is clear that we want to modify hummingbirds. So, here we have our first error in the sentence.
Then as we read further “extends from A to B, from C to D”, we realize that this part is definitely referring to a range. So, in this context, the subject of the sentence “range” makes sense.
Therefore, we have one error in the original sentence.
(A) Incorrect. For the error described above.
(B) Correct. The modifier error has been corrected in this sentence. “Found” now modifies “hummingbirds”.
Also, there is a slight change in the structure. “survive” has now become the main verb, and “their range extending” is a Noun+Noun modifier providing additional information about the main clause. However, both the changes are fine as the sentence now is communicating a logical and clear meaning.
(C) Incorrect. There is no verb for the subject ‘Hummingbirds’ in this option.
(D) Incorrect. There is no verb for the subject ‘Hummingbirds’ in this option.
(E) Incorrect. The two verbs “are found” and “survive” are not connected properly. We need “and” to connect two verbs. In this option, the two verbs are connected by just a comma.
“Their range extends…” is a separate independent clause in this option, correctly punctuated with “comma + and”.
This option, thus, has one error.